## Quantum nonlocality based on finite-speed causal influences leads to superluminal signaling

The experimental violation of Bell inequalities using spacelike separated measurements precludes the explanation of quantum correlations through causal influences propagating at subluminal speed. Yet, it is always possible, in principle, to explain such experimental violations through models based on hidden influences propagating at a finite speed v>c, provided v is large enough. Here, we show that for any finite speed v>c, such models predict correlations that can be exploited for faster-than-light communication.

## Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics

We argue that thermal machines can be understood from the perspective of `virtual qubits' at `virtual temperatures': The relevant way to view the two heat baths which drive a thermal machine is as a composite system. Virtual qubits are two-level subsystems of this composite, and their virtual temperatures can take on any value, positive or negative. Thermal machines act upon an external system by placing it in thermal contact with a well-selected range of virtual qubits and temperatures. We demonstrate these claims by studying the smallest thermal machines.

## Can apparent superluminal neutrino speeds be explained as a quantum weak measurement?

Probably not.

## Frustrated Quantum Spin Models with Cold Coulomb Crystals

We exploit the geometry of a zig-zag cold-ion crystal in a linear trap to propose the quantum simulation of a paradigmatic model of long-ranged magnetic frustration. Such a quantum simulation would clarify the complex features of a rich phase diagram that presents ferromagnetic, dimerized antiferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and floating phases, together with previously unnoticed features that are hard to assess by numerics. We analyze in detail its experimental feasibility, and provide supporting numerical evidence on the basis of realistic parameters in current ion-trap technology.

## A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit

Around the globe several observatories are seeking the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs). These waves are predicted by Einsteins general theory of relativity and are generated, for example, by black-hole binary systems. Present GW detectors are Michelson-type kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance changes between mirrors suspended in vacuum. The sensitivity of these detectors at frequencies above several hundred hertz is limited by the vacuum (zero-point) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field.

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